GALE Phase 1 Distillation Training

Item Name: GALE Phase 1 Distillation Training
Author(s): Olga Babko-Malaya, Song Chen, Ramez Zakhary, Julie Medero, Kazuaki Maeda, Stephanie Strassel
LDC Catalog No.: LDC2007T20
ISBN: 1-58563-452-2
ISLRN: 570-571-401-317-7
Release Date: November 20, 2007
Member Year(s): 2007
DCMI Type(s): Text
Data Source(s): broadcast news, broadcast conversation
Project(s): GALE
Application(s): topic detection and tracking, metadata extraction, message understanding, information retrieval, information extraction, distillation, automatic content extraction
Language(s): English, Standard Arabic, Mandarin Chinese
Language ID(s): eng, arb, cmn
License(s): LDC User Agreement for Non-Members
Online Documentation: LDC2007T20 Documents
Licensing Instructions: Subscription & Standard Members, and Non-Members
Citation: Babko-Malaya, Olga, et al. GALE Phase 1 Distillation Training LDC2007T20. Web Download. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium, 2007.


GALE Phase 1 Distillation Training, Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) catalog number LDC2007T20 and isbn 1-58563-452-2, constitutes the final release of training data created by LDC for the DARPA GALE Program Phase 1 Distillation technology evaluation. Distillation is one of three primary technology components for the DARPA GALE Program, along with Transcription and Translation. Distillation engines respond to queries from English-speaking users, delivering pertinent, consolidated information in easy-to-understand forms. The distillation engine processes English and foreign language material, both speech and text, from multiple sources and documents, removing redundancy and presenting an integrated response to the user.

This release consists of 248 English, Chinese and/or Arabic queries and their responses, created by LDC annotators. Queries conform to one of ten template types. Query responses may include document and snippet relevance judgments, nuggets, nugs and supernugs. 158 of the 248 queries have been annotated for all features, while the remainder are labeled for only some features. In addition, not all queries have been exhaustively annotated for a given feature, given resource constraints during corpus development. The table below indicates the number of queries that have been labeled for each template in each source language.

English Chinese Arabic
Template 1 15/28 9/17 12/16
Template 3 16/29 9/29 13/29
Template 4 15/23 7/18 11/18
Template 5 21/39 10/39 20/36
Template 6 15/20 7/19 7/20
Template 8 12/14 6/13 5/14
Template 9 14/23 7/21 10/21
Template 11 11/22 8/15 2/14
Template 15 12/21 8/11 5/11
Template 16 13/24 10/12 8/12
Total 144/243 81/194 93/191


The annotation task involves responding to a series of user queries. For each query, annotators first find relevant documents and identify snippets (strings of contiguous text that answer the query) in the Arabic, Chinese or English source document. Annotators then create a nugget for each fact expressed in the snippet. Semantically equivalent nuggets are grouped into cross-language, cross-document "supernugs". Judges at BAE Systems finally provide relevance weights for each supernug.

Queries in this release have been annotated for the following tasks:

  • searching for relevant documents and providing yes/no judgements
  • extracting snippets
  • resolution of pronouns, and certain types of temporal and locative expressions contained in the snippets
  • creating nuggets, i.e. atomic pieces of information that an annotator considers a valid answer to the query
  • building nugs, i.e. clusters of semantically-equivalent nuggets for each language
  • building supernugs, i.e. clusters of semantically-equivalent nugs across languages


For an example of the data contained in this corpus, please review this sample.


This work was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, GALE Program Grant No. HR0011-06-1-0003. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.

The World is a co-production of Public Radio International and the British Broadcasting Corporation and is produced at WGBH Boston.

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