DEFT English Light and Rich ERE Annotation

Item Name: DEFT English Light and Rich ERE Annotation
Author(s): Song Chen, Ann Bies, Kira Griffitt, Joe Ellis, Stephanie Strassel
LDC Catalog No.: LDC2023T04
ISLRN: 712-226-273-489-1
Release Date: April 17, 2023
Member Year(s): 2023
DCMI Type(s): Text
Data Source(s): discussion forum, newswire
Project(s): DEFT
Application(s): information extraction
Language(s): English
Language ID(s): eng
License(s): LDC User Agreement for Non-Members
Online Documentation: LDC2023T04 Documents
Licensing Instructions: Subscription & Standard Members, and Non-Members
Citation: Chen, Song, et al. DEFT English Light and Rich ERE Annotation LDC2023T04. Web Download. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium, 2023.
Related Works: View


DEFT English Light and Rich ERE Annotation was developed by the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) and consists of 1190 English discussion forum, newswire and proxy documents annotated for entities, relations and events (ERE).

DARPA's Deep Exploration and Filtering of Text (DEFT) program aimed to address remaining capability gaps in state-of-the-art natural language processing technologies related to inference, causal relationships and anomaly detection. LDC supported the DEFT program by collecting, creating and annotating a variety of data sources.

Light ERE annotation labels entity mentions for the target set of entity, relation and event types between and among those entities including coreference. Rich ERE annotation expands types and tagging in the entities, relations, and events annotation tasks and replaces strict event coreference with a more loosely defined event hopper annotation. Further information about the annotation methodology is contained in the documentation accompanying this release.


The source data consists of English discussion forum web text collected by LDC for the DARPA BOLT program and contained in BOLT English Discussion Forums (LDC2017T11); newswire documents published in various data sets released in the TAC KBP project (Text Analysis Conference Knowledge Base Population; and proxy documents intended to mimic government analysis reports of newswire content published in DEFT Narrative Text (LDC2016T07).

902 documents were annotated following Light ERE annotation guidelines. 288 documents were labeled with Rich ERE annotation in a second pass after being annotated for Light ERE.

Below is a data summary:

  Light ERE Rich ERE
Files 902 288
Words 505,837 180,040
Entity Mentions 76,528 34,606
Entities 23,313 11,546
Fillers n/a 2,324
Relations 9,313 4,193
Event Mentions 4,066 5,763
Event Hoppers 2,898 4,143


Source documents are in plain text format, annotation is in XML format, and both are UTF-8 encoded.


Please view the following samples:


None at this time.


This material is based on research sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory and Defense Advance Research Projects Agency under agreement number FA8750-13-2-0045. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of Air Force Research Laboratory and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or the U.S. Government.

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