GALE Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging Training Part 1 -- Newswire and Web

Item Name: GALE Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging Training Part 1 -- Newswire and Web
Author(s): Xuansong Li, Stephen Grimes, Stephanie Strassel
LDC Catalog No.: LDC2012T16
ISBN: 1-58563-624-X
ISLRN: 582-702-931-027-0
Release Date: September 17, 2012
Member Year(s): 2012
DCMI Type(s): Text
Data Source(s): weblogs, newswire
Project(s): GALE
Application(s): machine translation, content-based retrieval, automatic content extraction, tagging
Language(s): English, Mandarin Chinese, Chinese
Language ID(s): eng, cmn, zho
License(s): LDC User Agreement for Non-Members
Online Documentation: LDC2012T16 Documents
Licensing Instructions: Subscription & Standard Members, and Non-Members
Citation: Li, Xuansong, Stephen Grimes, and Stephanie Strassel. GALE Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging Training Part 1 -- Newswire and Web LDC2012T16. Web Download. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium, 2012.
Related Works: View


GALE Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging Training Part 1 -- Newswire and Web was developed by the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) and contains 150,068 tokens of word aligned Chinese and English parallel text enriched with linguistic tags. This material was used as training data in the DARPA GALE Global Autonomous Language Exploitation) program.

Some approaches to statistical machine translation include the incorporation of linguistic knowledge in word aligned text as a means to improve automatic word alignment and machine translation quality. This is accomplished with two annotation schemes: alignment and tagging. Alignment identifies minimum translation units and translation relations by using minimum-match and attachment annotation approaches. A set of word tags and alignment link tags are designed in the tagging scheme to describe these translation units and relations. Tagging adds contextual, syntactic and language-specific features to the alignment annotation.


This release consists of Chinese source newswire and web data (newsgroup, weblog) collected by LDC in 2008. The distribution by genre, words, character tokens and segments appears below:

Language Genre Files Words CharTokens Segments
Chinese nw 193 53279 79919 2016
Chinese wb 87 46766 70149 2357
Total 280 100045 150068 4373

Note that all token counts are based on the Chinese data only. One token is equivalent to one character and one word is equivalent to 1.5 characters.

The Chinese word alignment tasks consisted of the following components:

  • Identifying, aligning, and tagging 8 different types of links
  • Identifying, attaching, and tagging local-level unmatched words
  • Identifying and tagging sentence/discourse-level unmatched words
  • Identifying and tagging all instances of Chinese 的 (DE) except when they were a part of a semantic link.

The file names indicate the source provider, the story date and the language. For example, AFP_CMN_20080406 refers to the source Agence France Presse (AFP), the story date is April 6, 2008 and the language is Chinese (CMN).


Please follow the links for the source, translation, and word alignment files.


This work was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, GALE Program Grant No. HR0011-06-1-0003. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.


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