BOLT Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging -- Discussion Forum Training

Item Name: BOLT Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging -- Discussion Forum Training
Author(s): Xuansong Li, Katherine Peterson, Stephen Grimes, Stephanie Strassel
LDC Catalog No.: LDC2016T19
ISBN: 1-58563-768-8
ISLRN: 629-964-511-709-3
Release Date: September 15, 2016
Member Year(s): 2016
DCMI Type(s): Text
Data Source(s): discussion forum
Project(s): BOLT
Application(s): machine translation, automatic content extraction, content-based retrieval, tagging
Language(s): Mandarin Chinese, English, Chinese
Language ID(s): cmn, eng, zho
License(s): LDC User Agreement for Non-Members
Online Documentation: LDC2016T19 Documents
Licensing Instructions: Subscription & Standard Members, and Non-Members
Citation: Li, Xuansong, et al. BOLT Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging -- Discussion Forum Training LDC2016T19. Web Download. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium, 2016.
Related Works: View


BOLT Chinese-English Word Alignment and Tagging -- Discussion Forum Training was developed by the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) and consists of 448,094 words of Chinese and English parallel text enhanced with linguistic tags to indicate word relations.

The DARPA BOLT (Broad Operational Language Translation) program developed machine translation and information retrieval for less formal genres, focusing particularly on user-generated content. LDC supported the BOLT program by collecting informal data sources -- discussion forums, text messaging and chat -- in Chinese, Egyptian Arabic and English. The collected data was translated and annotated for various tasks including word alignment, treebanking, propbanking and co-reference.


This release consists of Chinese source discussion forum threads harvested from the Internet by LDC using a combination of manual and automatic processes. The source data is released as BOLT Chinese Discussion Forums (LDC2016T05).

The BOLT word alignment task was built on treebank annotation. Specifically, LDC automatically extracted Chinese source tokens, including empty categories/traces, from word-segmented files provided by the BOLT Chinese Treebank annotation team at Brandeis University. The word-segmented tokens were then used to automatically generate ctb (Chinese Treebank) alignment and were also tokenized for character alignment by inserting white spaces to separate characters.

The data profile broken down by character tokens, ctb tokens and segments appears below:

Language Genre Files Words CharTokens CTBTokens Segments
Chinese forum 570 448,094 672,140 442,520 20,819


This material is based upon work supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under Contract No. HR0011-11-C-0145. The content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.


Please view the following samples:


None at this time.

Available Media

View Fees

Login for the applicable fee